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发表于 2015-7-13 11:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
中华文明是世界上最古老的、连续不断的文明之一。事实上,不同于西方文明,ysl,还有印度文明,中国在大部分历史中始终保持着政治上的统一。可人们都通常误认为中国在历史上是间断和虚弱的,(但)中国一些强大的王朝已对全球史产生了深远的影响。没错,这是事实,在明王朝时期,中国海船就数次进行 了远洋探索(1405年-1433年),但到了(1433年)探索却意外终止了。这次远洋几乎没有让中国对历史上的东、南亚、还有中亚的经济政治产生太大 的影响。


144017cdus5zut2h1b8fbj.jpg.thumb_.jpg
China’s3 Most Powerful Dynasties
中国三大鼎盛王朝
China’smighty history continues to shape it…
中国仍在受其浩瀚历史的熏染…
作者:AkhileshPillalamarri ;写于2015年4月26日
Chinesecivilization is one of the world’s oldest continuous civilizations. Indeed, unlike Western, Islamic,and Indian civilizations, China has managed to remain politically unified formuch of its history.
Contraryto the common perception of China being historically isolated and weak, manyChinese dynasties were very powerful and have had a profound impact on globalhistory. Yes, it is true that during the Ming Dynasty, China ships conductedmultiple voyages of exploration beforeabruptly stopping. But this hardly dented the enormous economic and politicalinfluence China wielded for most of its history in East, Southeast, and CentralAsia. Although the people of these regions pursued their own interests asbest as they could, China was always the major power to be dealtwith.
Nonetheless,not all Chinese dynasties were created, and these three stood abovethe rest.
中华文明是世界上最古老的、连续不断的文明之一。事实上,不同于西方文明,ysl,还有印度文明,中国在大部分历史中始终保持着政治上的统一。
可人们都通常误认为中国在历史上是间断和虚弱的,(但)中国一些强大的王朝已对全球史产生了深远的影响。没错,这是事实,在明王朝时期,中国海船就数次进行了远洋探索(1405年-1433年),但到了(1433年)探索却意外终止了。这次远洋几乎没有让中国对历史上的东、南亚、还有中亚的经济政治产生太大的影响。尽管这些地区的人们尽可能地追寻他们的自身的利益,中国也总是尽全力去进行贸易。
但是,并不是所有的中国朝代都这样,以下三个王朝远卓于其他朝代之上。
TheHan Dynasty
TheHan Dynasty ruled China for a solid four centuries, from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.Although the preceding Qin Dynasty unified China, it was the Han Dynasty thatkept it together and developed the institutions that characterized most ofChinese history since.
TheHan Dynasty was able to maintain its bureaucracy and military through a moreefficient and thorough system of taxation than many contemporary empires.Additionally, to gain increased revenue, the Han created monopolies on iron andsalt. The salt monopoly has been a traditional source of revenue for Chinesestates since, one that apparently lasted until 2014.
TheHan’s largecoffers allowed it to expand China’s boundariesoutwards from its traditional heartland in the Yellow Rivervalley toward what is today southern China. Southern China would prove tobe very important to China in the future since it can support a largepopulation through the rice crop. Thanks in part to southern China’s wealth, China’s sociopolitical developmentwas usually greater than its neighbors, allowing China to easily incorporate ordefeat them.
Oneexception to this, however, was China’s perennial problem— namely, nomads to its north.During the Han, these were the Xiongnu. Constant harassment and raids by thesenomads necessitated the first construction of the Great Wall during the QinDynasty. During the Han, China attempted to outflank its enemies, which led toan expedition westward into today’s Xinjiang andCentral Asia.
This process is generally thought to have informed Chinafor the first time of other civilizations, a shocking development for a peoplewho until then believed themselves to be the only state society. Indeed, duringthis time China became aware of the civilizations of India, the Bactrians,the Sogdians, the Persians, and many more, This event isthought to have stimulated the development of trade routes that would later becalled the Silk Road.
Tocontrol trade routes and outflank their enemies, Chinese forces occupied muchof Xinjiang for many decades, allowing them to project their influence deep tothe west. Buddhism also entered China through this route at this time.
汉王朝
汉王朝、公元前206年至220年(注:汉王朝应是公元前202年至220年),汉王朝统治了中国整整四个世纪。尽管之前的秦王朝已统一了中国,但却从是汉王朝开始延续并巩固了最具中国历史特色的制度。为了维持汉王朝的官僚制度和军事力量,相比许多其他同时期的帝国,它所采取的人才选拔和税收制度更为完善。此外,为了增加收入,汉朝创立了官办铁盐进行垄断经营。后来盐业垄断一直是中国的传统收入来源,据说一直延续到2014年。
汉朝庞大的财富促使中国的边界开始从黄河流域向如今的中国南方拓展,后来证明华南对于中国至关重要,因为那里盛产可以养活大量人口的水稻。多亏华南的富饶,才使得中国的社会发展一直领先于其他邻国,使得中国能轻松地吞并或击败他们。
可有个例外,一直是中国的心腹之患,那就是北方的游牧民族。他们在汉代被称为匈奴。这些游牧民族的不停地进行骚扰和袭击,迫使秦朝时就开始修长城。到了汉代,中国打算从侧翼包抄敌人,其中一支远征军已向西深入到如今的xj和中亚。
通常都以为是这次远征让中国首次了解到其他文明,这对于一个自认为唯我独尊的国家社会来说,应该是一个令人震惊的发现。事实上,这个时期的中国发现了印度、大夏,粟特,波斯,等更多的文明,这一事件促进了贸易线路的发展,后来这条路线被称之为丝绸之路。
通过贸易控制以及包抄敌人,汉朝军队在几十年当中控制了xj大部分地区,这使得他们的影响力逐步深入到西方。与此同时,佛教也正是通过这条路线进入到中国。
Tang
Afterthe Han Dynasty collapsed due to civil war, China entered a period of disunityuntil being reunited by the Sui Dynasty, which was subsequently succeeded bythe Tang Dynasty, which ruled China from 618-907 C.E. The Tang Dynasty was oneof China’smost cosmopolitan and urbane dynasties, opening China up to a period of foreigninfluences. The Tang Dynasty was also likely China’s largest and most powerful dynasty in history and is considered thegolden age of imperial China.
Thepopulation base of the Tang Dynasty was estimated to have been around 80million people, enabling it to completely dominate its neighbors. During thistime, China continued to expand northeast and south, incorporating much ofManchuria and Vietnam. It was also during this period that many other statesocieties developed under Chinese influence, including Korea, Japan, and Tibet.This period thus saw the establishment of thetributary state system to a greater extent than under the Han. Although theydid not rule Tibet, the Tangwere the first Chinese dynasty to exert influence over thepreviouslyforeboding plateau to the southeast.
唐王朝
汉因内战而覆灭,之后,中国进入了一个四分五裂的时期,直到隋朝再次统一,但随即被唐取代,唐统治中国的时期是从618年至907年。唐是中国历史上最具国际化、最为开放的朝代。唐王朝也许是中国历史上最庞大、最强大的王朝,同时它也被认为是中华帝国的黄金时代。
唐代人口估计约有8千万人,在所有的邻国当中首屈一指。在这个时期里,中国持续向东北部和南部拓展,吞并了满洲及越南大部分地区。也正是在这一时期,不少其他国家的社会发展,包括韩国、日本、以及XZ都深受中国的影响。
由此认为,此期间的朝贡体系中的政权势力比起汉朝延伸的更广,但他们还没有控制XZ。唐朝是首个越过蛮荒地带影响到东南方面的中国王朝。(最后这句可给我顶住了,乱写的求指教)
TheTang military was successful because it had learned to fight like the steppenomads in many ways. The Tang were crazy about horses, which had previously been relativelyrare in China, and imported and breed many different breeds, negating the mainadvantage of the nomads to their north. The Tang also promoted and used talentedCentral Asian generals (a decision which would later come back to haunt them).
TheTang’sgrip on Xinjiang was firm during this time (the region had slipped from Chineserule after the Han) and garrisons were established in the “Western Region,” an area thatwas expanding rapidly to dominate all of Central Asia up to the border of thePersian Empire. Until the Arabs defeated the Chinese in the Battle of Talas(751), it looked as thoughCentral Asia’s future was with China. Numerous states near this region such asKabul and Kashmir became direct tributaries to China. The Chinese alsointervened in the affairs of their steppe neighbors and even in the northern heartland of India.
TheTang Dynasty never recovered from the An Lushan Rebellion, when An Lushan, a Tanggeneral of Central Asian origin, revolted and named himself emperor. Up to halfof the empire’s population is said to have perished in the resulting fighting,famines, and diseases in what has been called one of history’s largest man-made disasters.
TheTang Dynasty managed to limp on due to support from Tibetan and Turkishsoldiers but eventually collapsed.
从多方来看,唐朝军队成功原因是它学会了像草原游牧民族那样的战斗。唐朝人对马特别迷恋,相比之前的朝代这相当少见,而且通过引进,培育出很多各种不同品种的马,从而抵消了在面对北方游牧民族时所处的劣势。唐还提倡起用有才干的中亚将领(这一决定后来时常让这些将领感到困惑)。
唐对xj的控制是在这个期间确定下来(在汉朝之后这个地区渐渐地就被中国统治了),并在“西域”建成了要塞,且以此为据点迅速控制了整个中亚并向波斯帝国边界延伸。直到阿拉伯人在塔拉斯战役中(公园751年)击败了中国。看起来中亚好像要和中国同呼吸共命运了,因为这一地区的大多数国家如喀布尔还有喀什米尔都成了中国的朝贡国。中国还介入他们的草原邻居的事务,手甚至还伸到了印度北部中心地带。
唐在安史之乱中元气大伤,在当时,出身中亚的唐朝将领安禄山自立为帝。据说唐帝国一半以上的人口死于战乱,饥荒和疾病之中,这场灾难被称为是史上最大的人为灾祸。
唐在藏族(注:吐蕃)和土耳其军队(注:东突厥)的维持下苟延残喘,但最终覆灭.
Qing
Thedynasties that followed the Tang’s collapse were all very weak. It wasn’tuntil the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) hundreds of yearslater that another dynasty rule over the Chinese heartland without majorthreats or issues. However, the Ming is considered to be one of the worstChinese dynasties, as China suffered a period of intellectual, political, and economicsterility under its rule.
TheMing were followed by the Qing, China’s last and one of its greatest dynasties, ruling from 1644 to 1911.This may seem puzzling since the Qing are often blamed for allowing the Chinesesystem to collapse and for the country to be humiliated by the West. Thesethings did happen during Qing but it doesn’t diminishfrom their achievements. Indeed, China today maintains borders far beyond itstraditional heartland, losing comparatively little territory compared to otherempires and their modern successor states (like Turkey and Iran) and this featcan be attributed to the policies and conquests of the Qing.
TheQing Dynasty was actually not Chinese in origin. They were Manchus who afterestablishing a state in Manchuria, were let into China through the Great Wallby a dissident Ming general. They then proceeded to conquer or co-opt the restof the country. Unlike the Mongols, the Qing established a lastingChinese-style state. The introduction of new crops from the Americas alsohelped China’s population grow to around 400 million.
清王朝
唐覆灭后其以后的朝代都很虚弱。这种虚弱一直持续到几百年后的明王朝,在没有重大威胁和问题的情况下又一个帝国统治了中原。然而,明朝是中国历代王朝中最为悲催的一个朝代,在明王朝的统治下,中国备受文人,党争,和经济衰败的折磨。
明王朝随后被清取代。清王朝是中国最后一个盛世王朝,其统治期从1644年至1644年。这其中有件事让人有些难以理解,因清后来导致中国体系瓦解,并因国家受到西方的羞辱而常招致指责。这些事情虽然都发生在清朝,但这并不能抹煞清朝的成就。事实上,中国现在所占有的地域远远超出了其传统的核心领域,相对其他帝国和它们后来的继承国(如土耳其和伊朗),中国仅丢掉了一少部分土地,这一伟绩可完全可归功于清朝的政策和它的四处征服。
其实清王朝的起源并不在中原。他们是满族人,之前曾在满洲(注:东北旧称)建国。借着与明将领政见相左越过长城进入到中国。之后他们开始四处征战或拉拢其他国家。跟蒙古不同的是,清建立了一个长久的中国式风格的国家。从美洲新引进的农作物(注:指玉米和部分薯类)也助使中国人口增至到约4亿多人。
TheQing were the first Chinese state to effectively control regions like Tibet,Xinjiang, Manchuria, and Mongolia, peripheral regions that were inhabited bypeople that had always harassed China. They were able to do this because of their dualnature as both a Chinese imperial bureaucratic state able to draw on agrarianrevenue, and as the leaders of a large northern tribal confederacy that wasable to assimilate Mongol tribes into their system. Gunpowder also aided theQing’scause, allowing them to negate the power of the steppe tribes.
TheQing’smasterful diplomacy was also part of its success. For example, the Qing ablyplayed Russia and Great Britain off one another during the Great Game.Neither of those two powers wanted the other to gain more territory in CentralAsia and were thus happy to led China keep most of its extensive empire as abuffer. Chinese influence also increased in Southeast Asia and Himalayan Asia to a greater degree than before during theQing Empire, as many states like Myanmar, Nepal, Chitral Valley (in Pakistantoday), and Siam became part of the Chinese system.
TheQing could have done better at focusing on threats from the sea—first the West, andthen Japan. On the whole, however, the Qing managed to lay the basis of China’s continued control into the modern era of the resources of much ofinner Asia, the Chinese equivalent of America’s wildwest.
Image: Flickr/Stuck inCustoms
评论翻译:
FayeFaye 12 hours ago
Lookaround the world, which country is not formed throughthe continued unifications with the neighboring tribes or kingdoms alongthe times. China is only one of the countries on earth that has gonethrough this normal process !
However,America, Australia, New Zealand etc are different. These Europeans wentthousands of miles to the kingdoms and tribes whom had nothing to do with theseEuropeans whatsoever, and these Europeans slaughtered the poor native peopleand stole their lands and resources.
放眼全球,哪个国家不是通过与邻近的部落和王国不断融合才形成的。中国只是正常走过这个流程的国家中的其中一个!可是跟美国,澳大利亚,新西兰等这些国家不同哇。这帮欧洲人万里迢迢地跑的那里,对那些王国和土著别的啥也没做,专对这群土著大开杀戒、窃取他们的资源。

Renoma Faye Faye 4 hours ago
That’sa fair assessment。
这个评价很公允,

Bankotsu a day ago
“…Chinasuffered a period of intellectual, political, and economic sterility under itsrule…”
Allthe dynasties towards the end suffered from these ailments. It’s not somethingnew.
2
“…中国备受文人,党争,和经济衰败的折磨…”
这是所有王朝的通病,不新鲜啦。

Elvis 4 days ago
Tang,Ming, & Han Dynasties at their peak of power (territory wise):
以下分别是唐、明、汉鼎盛时期的领土范围

144310o44vmvsz020gsy04.jpg.thumb_.jpg

144315nv71gg0b1ly5sglp.jpg.thumb_.jpg

144318hjt58bsl8loto3fs.jpg.thumb_.jpg

ashleyhk Elvis 4 days ago
Wayless, to the South, than they are claiming now.
比起他们现在所索要的,南面就到头了啊(指南海不应该算)。

Rocholo ashleyhk 3 days ago
Historically,the South China Sea was called the “South Sea” in Chinese. The IndianOcean was the “West Ocean” and the Pacific Ocean was the “ChinaOcean”. The names of bodies of water do not reflect ownership. Forexample, the Gulf of Mexico, English Channel and Persian Gulf are owned by noone country. My comment should not be construed as a statement for or against Chineseclaims in the South China Sea. It is just a comment on the naming.
从历史上看,中国把“南面的海”叫做南中国海。把印度洋叫“西洋”,把太平洋叫成“华洋”。海洋以谁的名称命名不代表它就是属于谁的。比如,墨西哥湾,英吉利海峡,波斯湾,没一个是属于他们国家的。可别把我说的当做为抠字眼,或是当做反对中国声称拥有南海主权。只是对命名吐个槽。

Elvis ashleyhk 4 days ago
Youare talking about the disputed islands in the South China Sea?
你是说中国南海中的岛有争议?

ashleyhk Elvis 4 days ago
Iam talking about the reefs, shoals in the SCS claimed by China as itsinviolable territory
我说的是珊瑚礁,中国把南海中的浅滩都说成是他们的领土。


Arf ashleyhk 4 days ago
It’scalled South China Sea for a reason, China owned or dominated the regionhistorically.
3
说成南中国海是有理由的,这里自古以来要么属于中国要么是归中国控制的。
paoburen Arf 2 days ago
南海,不是中国南海。。。。。。 (<— 原文如此)

ashleyhk Arf 3 days ago
Ownedand dominated are two very different things.
拥有和控制根本是两码事。

PeggySue ashleyhk 3 days ago
SouthChina Sea was found by China, named by China and manage by China for more than500 years.
2
南海是中国发现并以中国命名的,中国管理那里能有500多年了。

ashleyhk Peggy Sue 3 days ago
Nonsense.Any proof of your assertions?
扯淡,你有啥根据么?

PeggySue ashleyhk 3 days ago
Chinahad already proved it, your people cannot read.
1
中国早就证明过了,只是你们不知道而已。

ashleyhk Peggy Sue 3 days ago
Patheticresponse.
这不废话么~

PeggySue ashleyhk 3 days ago
myresponse stands.
这就是我的回答

ashleyhk Peggy Sue 3 days ago
Youhave absolutely no evidence to back up your response, so it may stand, but itstands alone, as an assertion not based on facts.
你这个答案根本就没啥证据,有不少这样的观点,但都没啥根据,就像没有事实根据的断言。

PeggySue ashleyhk 3 days ago
myrespond stands, your people cannot read. it is nobody else problem but yourown.
1
我都说了,你们的人不知道,但并不等于别人不知道。

Monarch Arf 4 days ago
You’refull of BS! It is called South China Sea and it is automatically belong toChina. The most BS things I ever heard/read.
你咋这么二啊,叫南中国海是因为它天生就属于中国的。你这个二B玩意难道听不懂我说啥吗?

PeggySue Monarch 3 days ago
Vietnamesehistory books are very shallow, either that or Vietnam history books have beenlost in translation, Vietnam actually do not have their own language, theyborrowed Chinese as their official language, when French colonialized Vietnam,Vietnamese turned to French. Often time, Vietnamese don’t know what they aretalking about, they are totally confused themselves.
越南历史书太薄了,又或是越南的历史书在翻译时漏翻了,实际上是越南根本没有自己的语言文字,( 当初)他们是借鉴汉语来当做他们官方语言的。后来法国人殖民越南时,越南官方语言就改成法语了,有时越南人都常常不知道他们该怎么去讲话,他们完全被自己搞蒙了。

FreOkin 4 days ago
Fantastichistory lesson. Thank you! I read somewhere the singular reason why the Westwere able to pry opened China was because the Qing failed to invest in makingmore powerful weapons. As we saw, US have Long Range cannons to pry open Japan.Similarly China was forced to give concessions to Britain and other Europeansin Tianjin ( saw that!). This bring us to modern warfare.Whoever have Range in weaponry have a much better chance to win. So it is notsurprising China and US, India, Japan, Russia etc, they all pursue the longestrange weaponry, not just ICBM to have a lethaladvantage. So in this sense the Qing dynasty was blamedfor the misery that China suffered for about 200 years from mid 1800 till mid1950 before PRC come into being.
Probablythe biggest blame is the British Empire using Opium from India to weaken theQing. Imagine whole country elites become drug addicts. I even saw remnant ofopium activities in the early sixties in Asia outside China in a Chinese opiumden. This is how disastrous drug addiction set back China for almost 200 years,on par perhaps with chicken pox, syphillis the Europeans infected the SouthAmerican natives. So this is the history of White man’s assault on other races.Just something kids should be aware of!
2 Reply匠栀愀爀攀
相当精彩的一堂历史课,谢谢您!我读着读着就冒出了一个奇怪的想法,为什么西方能撬开中国的(大门),是因为中国没去花钱研究更强大的武器么?大家知道,我们用大炮撬开了日本。英国和其他西方国家用类似的手法迫使中国在天津做出妥协。我们在现代战争中谁的武器射程远谁的赢面就越大。这不奇怪,中国和美国,印度,日本,还有俄罗斯等一些国家,他们都追求长程武器,不只洲际弹道导弹这一个致命优势。所以从这个意义上来说,在中国人民共和国成立之前的1800年到1950年间,清朝因为这个弱点遭受了200年的苦难而受到埋怨。
或许最大的罪行是英国从印度带来的鸦片致使清朝衰弱。想象一下,整个国内的精英都染上了毒瘾。我甚至在60年代初还发现有吸鸦片的,除中国外别的亚洲地区还有鸦片馆呢。鸦片迟滞了中国几乎200多年这是多么地悲哀啊,这大概就像欧洲人让南美土著染上水痘、梅毒是一样的。所以这都是白人侵犯其他种族的历史,孩子们务必要有个了解。

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参与人数 1金币 +30 强点 +40 收起 理由
刘雨泽 + 30 + 40 应该说是乾隆目空一切,妄自尊大的恶果

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中国心勋章最佳新人纪念毛泽东征文勋章2016年新年征文优秀版主勋章优秀强友奖章铁质原创战斗勋章铜质原创战斗勋章银质原创战斗勋章优秀回帖奖章特邀评论员奖章水王水后灌神奖章端午征文勋章建国65周年征文勋章八周年纪念

所属军团陆军军团

发表于 2015-7-13 13:10 | 显示全部楼层
应该说自从中华人民共和国建立以来。由于西方的封锁。苏联的封锁。我们与外界的交流不够。改革开放以后我们在宣传力度不够。外国的普通老百姓不知道有情可原。但是作为战胜国的美国把这些都有意识的忘记。再加上歪曲事实编造谎言的宣传。我们就必须做好文武两手准备。

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中国心勋章特邀评论员奖章优秀转贴勋章

所属军团武装警察

发表于 2015-7-14 08:49 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2015-12-13 15:51 | 显示全部楼层
我中国有着悠久的历史,应该了解。
强国网友  发表于 2016-12-13 08:30
三个朝代的地图都是错的!!!

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中国心勋章纪念毛泽东征文勋章2016年新年征文优秀强友奖章铁质原创战斗勋章铜质原创战斗勋章银质原创战斗勋章优秀回帖奖章特邀评论员奖章水王水后灌神奖章建国65周年征文勋章抗战胜利70周年勋章八周年纪念

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所属军团武装警察

发表于 2015-7-14 01:58 | 显示全部楼层
        应该说是乾隆目空一切,妄自尊大的恶果
与美日作斗争,不是只争朝夕,而是一个长期存在的现象,这是因为矛与盾的关系在自然中本来就存在,既是对应关系,也是辩证关系,保持适度紧张,才能使我们时刻保持清醒头脑,保持适度紧张,有利于我们的长久治安。[e ...
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